Friday, August 21, 2020

Further Your Education On Your Own Time

Let’s be straightforward - available time is difficult to find. Regardless of whether you’re in school and battling to complete your outstanding task at hand, or youre working a 9-5 and don’t have an additional moment to save, discovering time for yourself isn’t a simple activity. That’s where edX comes in. EdX is a not-for-profit web based learning goal established by Harvard and MIT. They will likely offer top notch instruction, so they’ve banded together with a portion of the world’s top colleges and establishments to give online courses about an assortment of subjects. Since it began in 2012, edX has just aided more than 7 million students further their aptitudes through online courses. Some of edX’s most well known courses spread various themes. CS50x, Introduction to Computer Science, is offered by HarvardX as an extraordinary early on seminar on the nuts and bolts of programming. Prologue to Python for Data Scienceis offered by Microsoft and will give you the important comprehension of a ground-breaking programming language. However, edX’s courses don’t simply stop with software engineering. The stage offers classes outfitted towards secondary school clients, undergrads, and experts the same. For high schoolers, courses are promptly accessible, covering initial math classes right to AP Macroeconomics. Those keen on acquiring school acknowledge can do as such for edX too through the Global Freshman Academyby Arizona State University. On the off chance that you’re stressed over falling behind in class or are hoping to advance an additional progression beyond in the working scene, edX has the classes to assist. Search through the database of coursesand discover the class that’s directly for you.

Tuesday, July 14, 2020

Moonshine Can Still Cause Health Problems

Moonshine Can Still Cause Health Problems Addiction Alcohol Use Print Moonshine Can Still Cause Health Problems By Buddy T facebook twitter Buddy T is an anonymous writer and founding member of the Online Al-Anon Outreach Committee with decades of experience writing about alcoholism. Learn about our editorial policy Buddy T Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on July 06, 2015 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on November 20, 2018 Scott Olson / Getty Images More in Addiction Alcohol Use Binge Drinking Withdrawal and Relapse Children of Alcoholics Drunk Driving Addictive Behaviors Drug Use Nicotine Use Coping and Recovery Moonshine, the formerly hush-hush, home-distilled liquor of backwoods Appalachia is still around. In fact, its now legit. White lightning, as its called, was once completely an illicit and banned substance by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, but it is now permitted for sale and regulated by the U.S. federal government in some states. The first legal moonshine distillery in Tennessee opened its doors in 2010, and others followed in Kentucky, Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina.?? There are some estimates that more than a million illegal moonshine stills are in operation in the United States making the production of the clear,  high-potency brew  more prevalent and widespread now than it has ever been in history. And, its potentially very dangerous to make at home due to its ingredients, byproducts, and flammability.   What Is Moonshine? Moonshine, also known as hooch or homebrew, is made by fermenting a sugar source to produce ethanol. Traditionally, moonshine is made from a mash of corn and sugar. The alcohol is separated from the mash by a distillation process.  One big difference between moonshine and other liquors like whiskey or bourbon is that moonshine is not aged. The result is a distilled spirit that contains a high percentage of alcohol, many times greater than 100 proof (50 percent), like a white whiskey. Moonshine may conjure up images of country-folk distilling and transporting their  potent potables in jugs branded XXX during the middle of the night to avoid detection, and that is not far off from the truth in some parts of the U.S. where that still occurs. What has changed is that now in the modern era,?? the ability to buy commercially produced, all-copper moonshine stills on the internet has taken some of the danger out of the moonshine distilling process. Despite this improvement, that does not mean that all moonshine is safe to drink. Plenty of moonshine is being brewed in the hills of Appalachia in stills made from automobile radiator parts. History of Moonshine As far as we can tell, brewing alcohol has been around since the beginning of mankind. Moonshine is believed to have been introduced in the southern Appalachian region of the U.S. by Scotch-Irish immigrants in the late 1700s. According to Appalachian anthropologists, the Scotch-Irish immigrants who migrated to the region in the late 1700s and early 1800s brought with them their tradition of home brewing and their recipe for the high-potency hooch. The term comes from the fact that it is done at night so people will not see the smoke from the still. Therefore, it can be hidden from the police or thirsty neighbors, according to Jason Sumich, Department of Anthropology, Appalachian State University. Moonshine was originally packaged in clay jugs, then later Mason jars. The old clay jars were often marked with XXX on the side. Supposedly each X represented how many times the brew had been through the distillation process. Big Moneymaker Moonshine Moonshine was once an important financial aspect of the Appalachian economy, providing a source of income in bad economic times and in areas where poverty was rampant. Like any good produced in the U.S., moonshine experienced its peaks and valleys in the supply and demand chain. Moonshine experienced a deep lull when the U.S. had an increase in the price of sugar starting in the 1950s. Moonshine seemed to become a fading tradition as the U.S. experienced an increase in the  use of marijuana and the use of prescription painkillers at epidemic levels in the region. In recent years, moonshine seems to have had a resurgence. Now with the trend for higher prices at the liquor store, especially for imported spirits, moonshining has hit the spotlight again. In 2010, a BBC investigation into moonshining in the United States found that as many as a million Americans were breaking the law by making moonshine. In the same year, Tennessee started selling legal hooch in big box stores like Walmart and Sams Club. On the internet, several websites offer stills made of all copper for sale, ranging from one-gallon personal models to 220-gallon commercial outfits. They range in price from $150 to $11,000 and anywhere in between. One seller claimed the demand for his copper stills doubled in recent years and he had shipped stills to every state in the U.S. Why Is Moonshine Dangerous? Illegal moonshine remains dangerous because it is mostly brewed in makeshift stills. It can be dangerous on two levels, both during the distilling process and when consuming it. The distilling process itself produces alcohol vapors, which are highly flammable. More than one moonshine maker has died by striking a match to light his pipe at the wrong time. The flammable vapors are one major reason why moonshine stills are almost always located outside, although it makes them easier to be spotted by law enforcement. The threat of vaporous explosions is too great if confined inside. In terms of consuming the liquid, if the final product is over 100 proof, the moonshine itself is flammable and can be very dangerous. Can Moonshine Make You Go Blind? More people have died from drinking moonshine than have died by explosions of stills due to the toxins in the brew. Although many of the stills in operation today are the all-copper variety, there are plenty of the old handmade stills still around. Old stills use vehicle radiators in the distilling process, and they are apt to contain lead?? soldering, which could contaminate the moonshine. The old radiators could also contain remnants of antifreeze glycol products which could also add toxins to the brew. In larger batches of distilled moonshine, tainting with methanol can occur. Because methanol vaporizes at a lower temperature than alcohol, the first liquid produced by the distillation process can contain methanol. The larger the batch, the more methanol. Methanol is highly poisonous and can cause blindness and even death. Most moonshine makers today know to pour off those first drippings from the condenser, also known as the foreshot, but not all of them know or do it. In 2003, Dr. Christopher Holstege,?? a physician with the University of Virginia Health System, tested 48 samples of moonshine obtained by law enforcement from different stills. The doctor found lead contamination in 43 of the samples. How Can You Tell If Moonshine Is Safe? Folklore tells us one way to test the purity of moonshine is to pour some in a metal spoon and set it on fire. If it burns with a blue flame it is safe, but if it burns with a yellow or red flame, it contains lead, prompting the old saying, Lead burns red and makes you dead. But, the spoon burning method is not completely reliable. This test does not detect other toxins that might be in the brew,?? like methanol, which burns with a colorless flame. With millions of gallons of moonshine being produced each year in the United States, chances are some of it is going to be tainted. Health officials are concerned that moonshine toxicity in ailing patients might be overlooked?? because most healthcare providers consider it a tradition of the past.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Odysseus and the Gods - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 593 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2019/07/30 Category People Essay Level High school Topics: Odysseus Essay Did you like this example? How long would have Odysseus survived without any help from the gods. Without them, The Odyssey would most likely be a very short story. The gods help Odysseus in many ways, but they also made his adventure tougher. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Odysseus and the Gods" essay for you Create order Odysseus might not have survived as long without the gods by his side. The gods that affect him the most were Athena, and Hermes. All humans show so much respect to the gods because the gods are listening and will help if it is necessary. Odysseus had to show them respect too because of all the help that they give him. With their help the story is complete, and lended Odysseus the strength to continue. The gods give him great examples and also made him try his hardest not only to see his family but to make the gods proud. Hermess actions are powerful and left a good mark in the journey. He is a working messenger and sends a message for Calypso to release Odysseus from her island. That said, the keen-eyed messenger was quick (96). He also gives Odysseus the moly plant which allows him to overcome Circe and remain a man instead of becoming insane. Hermes acts as a great example for Odysseus to have for the rest of his journey. Odysseus would never get out of the island if it wasnt for Hermes. He needs the most help he can get and Hermes is there to help things go right. The effectiveness of his actions caused great things to happen to Odysseus. Athena is the most important goddess in the story of The Odyssey. She helps Odysseus and Telemachus with their whole journey home and uses her divine powers. Throughout the story, she acts as Telemachus mentor and teacher because she helps guide him in the right direction. Athena acts very strong and caring towards others. Grey-eyed Athena set her mind on still another stratagem, so that Odysseus might come to see the gracious girl who could lead him to the town of the Phaeacians. (112) She helps Odysseus with his success by helping him in the fights, speaking up for him, and staying active. But then Athena added to her plan this stratagem. (367) Athena shows that she was willing to be active and take time to make plans for others. Odysseus was definitely thankful for all the gods and their contributions to his long journey. If he didnt have anyone to help him, he wouldve died or stayed in one place for years. Some gods didnt have as much of an impact on this adventure, but they all contributed in positive and negative ways to complete the journey. With their inhuman capabilities, they were able to use them in many ways to make this adventure very epic. Odysseus shows a lot of respect to the gods and got many decent outcomes. They were all very powerful and could use their strengths to either help others or take them down. The gods make people want to be as strong as them, so they try to do their best and beseech them to make them proud. Odysseus had so many great people and gods on his side that he could be stronger than his enemies. If they werent on his side helping, he wouldve not been able to tell his story and he wouldve been a mystery. Odysseus was definitely thankful for all the gods and their contributions to his long journey. A world without gods, religious or not, would make us humans feel empty by not having any figure higher and leading us.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Comparison of Two Poems the Tyger and the Lamb

I chose to do the comparison between ‘The Tyger’ and ‘The Lamb’ because they both have similar themes but are concerned with very different aspects of life. ‘The Tyger’ concentrates on the dangers to be faced in life and nature while ‘The Lamb’ celebrates nature as seen through the innocent eyes of a child. Blake examines different, almost opposite or contradictory ideas about the natural world, its creatures and their Creator. William Blake is the narrator of both poems which emphasizes his questioning of creation and religion as themes in the two poems. The simplicity of Blake’s use of rhyming couplets in both poems makes them easy to read and remember. The poems have a rhythm similar to a nursery rhyme which makes them†¦show more content†¦The mighty beast is a whole world of experience outside ourselves, destructive but also terrifyingly beautiful. Blake realizes, of course, that God made all the creatures on earth. However, to express his bewilderment that the God who created the gentle lamb also created the terrifying tiger, he includes Satan as a possible creator while raising his rhetorical questions for example ‘In what distant deeps or skies, Burnt the fire of thy eyes?’ In the 2nd stanza of ‘The Lamb’, the line ‘I a child thou a lamb.’ could mean that the poet William Blake is restored to the state of Innocence by Jesus Himself. The power of the poem, ‘The Lamb’ lies in the question repeated four times: ‘Who made thee?’ and Blake invites us to ask this profound and fundamental question of ourselves. The repetition of this question could also imply that Blake doubts that he who created innocence symbolized by the lamb would also create an evil portrayed by the tiger. ‘The Tyger’ is ruled by symmetry: symmetry between stanzas, between lines and within lines. For this reason, one of the details that leaps out at us immediately is the lack of symmetry between the first and last stanzas, where a single word ‘could’ in stanza 1 is changed to ‘dare’ in stanza 6. Compare ‘What immortal hand or eye could frame thy fearful symmetry?’ with ‘What immortal hand or eye dare frame thy fearful symmetry?’ The first question asks if there is any power thatShow MoreRelated Comparison of the Poems The Tyger and The Lamb Essay1217 Words   |  5 PagesComparison of the Poems The Tyger and The Lamb In William Blake’s Songs of Innocence and Experience we are confronted with a powerful juxtaposition of nature. The innocuous ‘lamb’ and the ferocious ‘Tyger’ are designed to be interpreted in comparison with each other. Both creatures innovatively define childhood, they provide a contrast between youthful innocence and the experience of age contaminating it. ‘The Lamb’ is simplistic in vocabulary and style, Blake uses childish repetitionsRead MoreThe Contrasting World Views in William Blake’s â€Å"the Lamb† and â€Å"the Tyger†941 Words   |  4 PagesThe Contrasting World Views in William Blake’s â€Å"The Lamb† and â€Å"The Tyger† A person’s view of the world is very situational, depending on their life experiences and their religious beliefs. William Blake examines two different world views in the poems â€Å"The Lamb,† and â€Å"The Tyger.† These poems were written as a pairing which were shown in Blake’s Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience respectively. While the first poem deals with a view of the world as innocent and beautiful, the other suggestsRead MoreThe Lamb and the Tyger Essay1437 Words   |  6 PagesThe Tyger and The Lamb by William Blake, written in 1794 included both of these poems in his collection Songs of Innocence and Song of Experience, takes readers on a journey of faith. Through a cycle of unanswered questions, William Blake motivates the readers to question God. These two poems are meant to be interpreted in a comparison and contrast. They share two different perspectives, those being innocence and experience. To Blake, innocence is not better than experience. Both states haveRead More, Allusion, And Symbolism In The Tyger By William Blake771 Words   |  4 PagesIn the poem â€Å"The Tyger† by William Blake, the use of rhyme, repetition, allusion, and symbolism all help the reader understand the theme and what was going through the authors thoughts while writing. William Blake was a mystic poet who channeled his thoughts and questions to write poems. He questioned the creator of both the Tyger and lamb, how could the same God create a destructive creature like the Tyger and on the other hand create a gentle animal, the lamb. This ties into the theme of theRead MoreWilliam Blake s The Lamb And The Tyger1493 Words   |  6 PagesInnocence and of Experience: Showing the Two Contrary States of the Human Soul (1794). Two standout poems, â€Å"The Lamb† and â€Å"The Tyger,† respectively taken from Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience, demonstrate Blake’s meditation on how innocence and experi ence in life create a binary and complementary relationship that is observable in our outer world as well as in our inner being. As one of the titles in his Songs of Innocence, William Blake chooses the lamb, naturally gentle and docile, as a representativeRead MoreWilliam Blake in Contrast of Songs of Innocence and of Experience1452 Words   |  6 PagesEN 222-Intro to British Lit. II April 21, 2012 William Blake in contrast of Songs of Innocence and of Experience William Blake, an engraver, exemplified his passion for children through his many poems. Blake lived in London most of his life and many fellow literati viewed him as eccentric. He claimed to have interactions with angels and prophets, which had a great influence on his outlook of life. Blake believed all prominent entities, those being church, state, and government had become sick withRead MoreEssay on The Symmetry: A World with Both Lamb and Tiger1063 Words   |  5 Pagespain and terror? The Tyger by William Blake, written in 1794 and included in his collection Songs of Innocence and Experience, takes readers on a journey of faith. Through a cycle of unanswered questions, William Blake motivates the readers to question God. Blake sees a necessity for balance in the world, and suggests to the readers that God created a world with a balance of good and evil so that humanity can see goodness more clearly through contrast and comparison. This theme is achievedRead MoreComparison between the Tyger and the Lamb518 Words   |  2 PagesComparison between the Tyger and the Lamb The Tyger and the Lamb were printed five years apart within two separate collections of poems. The Lamb was within Songs of Innocence (1789), and the Tyger was within Songs of Experience (1794). The two collections came together to be Songs of Innocence and of Experience Showing the Two Contrary States of the Human Soul. This should be viewed as significant because the revised name itself shows the two poems contradictions. The two poems display contrastingRead More Creating Blakes Tyger Essay3597 Words   |  15 PagesCreating Blake’s â€Å"Tyger† The Eighteenth-century British Romantic, William Blake, was an accomplished painter, engraver, and illustrator during his lifetime, but is best remembered for his poetry. Though Blake’s genius was generally dismissed by the public of his own era and he died with little acclaim, he has since been regarded as one of the greatest figures of the Romantic Movement. Whether with paint or pen, Blake is renowned for his ability to create works of art which, overRead More Comparison of The Lamb and The Tyger by William Blake Essay2199 Words   |  9 PagesBlake’s ‘Songs of Innocence and Experience examine these different states. Blake wanted to show the two contrary states in the human mind. The Lamb and the Tyger are just vehicles for Blake to express what he feels happens to people as they grow, develop and eventually become perverted by the world around them. Blake’s background and occupation greatly influenced the style and content of his poems. He lived during the 18th Century when the church was beginning to lose its grip on British society;

How to Apply for a Graduate Scheme Free Essays

How to Apply for a Graduate Scheme So that’s it – you’ve done it, you’ve graduated; three years of hard work have come to an end and you’ve finished university with a stellar degree and a shedload of memories, but what happens nextWell, by now you’ve probably realised that you’re no-longer a student and the fear has started to creep in – yep, it’s time to start thinking about the next chapter of your professional life. For some graduates this will mean applying for post-graduate study but for many others this will mean applying for a Graduate Scheme. What is a Graduate Scheme? A Graduate scheme is a career specific programme that is tailored to develop your skill and abilities to work in a certain profession. We will write a custom essay sample on How to Apply for a Graduate Scheme or any similar topic only for you Order Now Hundreds of organisations offer graduate schemes, ranging from John Lewis to Mercedes, the BBC to McDonalds, there is a wide variety of schemes out there. Many companies use graduate schemes as a way to get the brightest young minds into their workforce and to develop the business leaders of tomorrow. While each Grad scheme can vary massively from company to company, most schemes provide a structured progression path for graduates to make the transition from beer-drinking student to business-winning professional. Some programmes offer on-the-job training and even the opportunity to complete professional qualifications, while others are rotational and offer you the chance to experience multiple roles in different areas of the business – and in doing so, expose you to an array of actual, real-world situations. Schemes can vary in length, with some running from 2 years and others taking up to 6! After the graduate scheme finishes, most companies will offer you a full time position with that company. Of course no two graduate schemes are the same, but the principals of exposure and responsibility remains the same. Why should I choose a Graduate scheme? There are a many benefits to being on a Graduate Scheme; these can range from a higher-than-average starting salary, to the opportunity to try your hand at a wide range of different business areas and roles. Opportunities on graduate schemes can vary from business to business, and can include roles within consultancy, corporate sales, service operations, and project management. By having the opportunity to try out different roles in different areas of the business, you can get a better idea of the things you do or don’t like, and help to plan out you long-term progression path. Typically, a Graduate scheme is a great place to build your skills and climb the career ladder quickly and will also put you in a position to make valuable contacts that could pay off later on in life. Sounds great, so what do the Employers want from their Graduates? While some industries and employers may look for certain degree skills – such as engineers – the majority of employers tend to search for applicants based on three qualities: knowledge, skills and attributes. Most employers recognise that while your degree might not be directly related to their industry, the skills that you will have developed in your time at university will be an invaluable asset to them, as will your ability to learn and grow. Employers are looking for graduates with degrees and skills that can be further developed in the working place; for example, Mathematicians and Engineering graduates often go straight into graduate schemes which look to build on and utilise the relevant knowledge that you will have learnt from you university studies. Alternatively, other employees will look for the skills and attributes that you will have developed through your degree; for example English or History graduates can go into HR and Marketing schemes because of their excellent analytical and communication skills. Regardless of what subject you studied at university, there is a Graduate scheme for everyone. Awesome! So how do I applyAnd what’s involved with the application process? Most Graduate schemes accept online applications, either through a company website or through a specific job site. Online applications are very common in graduate recruitment as they make the job application process more efficient and practical for both you and the recruiter. The online applications will typically contain questions about your professional or academic experience, as well as some situational questions to get an idea of your background and your interest in the role. Some online application forms will have built in psychometric or numeracy tests, depending on the scheme, so it’s a good idea to practise doing these before you start to tackle the job application. A CV is a must-have for graduate jobs, so it’s best to spend a bit of time preparing yours before you start applying for schemes. Remember to keep it concise – two pages – and plain and simple. No fancy fonts, colours – just black and white – and no pictures of your ugly mug! If you’re successful in the initial stages of the application, you may well have a phone or face-to-face interview. For a phone interview, make sure you are in a quiet room and let everyone know you are expecting a phone call so that you don’t have your Mum bursting in on you halfway through the call! Ok I think I’m ready to apply for a Graduate Scheme – so where can I find out what schemes are available to me? Many graduates feel confused over which Graduate scheme to take following university, but websites like Milkround are great for searching through the types of graduate schemes which are available across a range of industries – from arts, entertainment and media to logistics, transport and I.T. It is also packed with valuable careers advice articles, such as where to start looking for a graduate scheme, which are well worth a read. Another site to use is WikiJob, a wikipedia-style website that is designed for students and graduates looking for career opportunities. WikiJob provides comprehensive insight into many professional areas including investment banking, consulting, engineering, accountancy and law. Also, you can try and for tips and advice on vacancies for graduate schemes. When looking for the right Graduate scheme, it is important to do plenty of research into the sorts of companies and roles you think you might like to get into, finding out what skills and experience are needed for each, and what you will get in return. Graduate schemes are not for everyone, but with the right guidance, training and investment, the right scheme can help develop you from being a green, young graduate to a business-savvy, experienced professional. How to cite How to Apply for a Graduate Scheme, Essay examples

Friday, April 24, 2020

Thomas Kuhns Scientific Revolution

This paper looks into four major ideas that are at the centre of Kuhn’s ‘Structure of Scientific Revolution’. The four basic concepts are paradigm, normal science, crisis and Inconsumerability. Through discussing the given concepts, the paper will delve into Kuhn’s belief with regards to progress in science.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Thomas Kuhn’s Scientific Revolution specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Kuhn is credited for having changed the general understanding of progress in science. Traditionally, science was understood to involve a progressive linear movement or accumulation of insights. Contrarily, Kuhn illustrates that science is marked by dramatic shifts that are akin of violent revolution. It is only after a revolution that a stable phase follows; a conceptual world that is radically different from the initial one (Andersen, 2001, p. 25). Kuhn successfully challenge d the common notion that science is always objective. Scientific inquiry is not a purely independent venture (Ladyman, 2002, p. 98). Science is not purely objective because scientific inquiry does not happen in a vacuum. The scientists operate in a given setting and are affected or determined by their circumstances. Further, their work is based on established theories and facts whose truthfulness is accepted on trust. For example, a researcher in ecology has to have certain assumptions. The methodology he or she adopts was developed basing on given assumptions. Further, as an individual, the researcher has influences on self and from the environment that impact on his or her interpretation of study results (Ladyman, 2002, p.122). The researcher has to be clear about what he or she wants. Then, he or she chooses methods that will guarantee that he or she gets what he or she wants. There is a general bias in the working of the scientist; his or her efforts are geared towards ensuring he or she gets what he wants. This kind of concern changes the researcher from an impartial subject to a subject that is influencing towards achieving a given kind of result. The different phases or conceptual states are what Kuhn referred to as paradigms. Scientists in a given paradigm hold to a given set of collective beliefs or agreements (Robert, 1952, p. 132). They share in a perception or general approach to problems or challenges that they tackle. Each scientific undertaking happens in the context of a given theoretical frame work. There are certain assumptions that inform scientific inquiry or work. The assumptions or collective beliefs guide or form basis for kind of methodology adopted, data interpretation framework and general analysis schema. For example, psychologists researching on human behavior base their inquiry on given assumptions. If a researcher based the research on a behavioral as opposed to psychoanalytic approach, the data they collect and the basis on which the same is analyzed would definitely lead to different results or theories (Godfrey-Smith, 2003, p. 80).Advertising Looking for essay on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Kuhn, it is the implicit paradigm assumptions that help distinguish sciences from other areas of study (Hoyningen-Huene, 1993, 169). The implicit assumptions of a paradigm act as criterion that is used in study or to validate study. The changes in the implicit assumptions lead to a paradigm shift. All paradigm shifts, according to Kuhn, happen through a revolutionary process. The hall marks of scientific revolution are a radical shift in theory and fact bases. A paradigm shift is a radical change in the way science as a study and criterion for accepting scientific findings is modeled. The phase between two revolutions or paradigm shifts is what Kuhn referred to as a normal science phase. Normal science according to Hoyningen-Huene (1993, 165) did not receive much attention or scrutiny until Kuhn developed his ‘structure of scientific revolutions’. During the normal science phase, scientists’ efforts are geared towards the consensus in assumptions (Hoyningen-Huene, 1993, 169). All theories and established facts support the status quo and deviating findings are considered out rightly wrong. In common practice, any findings that do not conform to established consensus or that contradict the basic paradigm assumptions are ignored. Instead of occasioning or triggering further research, such findings are considered as erroneous. Galileo’s findings, for example, were considered out rightly wrong because the basic assumptions based on Ptolemy’s theory was in line with the sun going around the stationary earth. Normal science is often shrouded in tradition and protected with a vengeance (Nickles, 2003, p. 143). Changing the status quo meets a lot of resistance because people generally fear the unknown. Therefore, a shift from a science paradigm also meets a lot of resistance. The resistance is occasioned by the fact that new paradigm often goes against expectations (Hoyningen-Huene, 1993, 177). The tension resulting from choice between maintaining status quo and charting new ground causes was referred to, by Kuhn, as scientific crisis. Science seeks to answer questions; however, scientific inquiry is ignited by a puzzle. The puzzle is a problem or incidence that can not be explained by existing assumptions. However, it is on the basis of the existing assumptions that the problem is analyzed. This paradox i.e. a problem that established assumptions have no explanations for but being investigated on the basis of the established assumption, is what Kuhn identified a crisis in scientific research (Nickles, 2003, p. 152).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Thomas Kuhn’s Scientific Revolution specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Crisis in science occurs when occurrences, incidences or discoveries no longer fit into the schema of established theories (Godfrey-Smith, 2003, p. 83). Scientists can either use established assumptions to come up with a convincing explanation, the problem can be left for later scientists to deal with it or a paradigm shift occurs. A paradigm shift means that new assumptions that challenge old assumptions are created. The old assumptions have become like the common sense and thus challenging them is like challenging the obvious. The majority will see the proponent of a new paradigm as either insane or really foolish. If the new paradigm garners a critical few; a paradigm war is in the offing. A battle in supremacy or over which view is right ensures. The battle is supposed to be intellectual but in some instances it goes physical. Kuhn further raised objections against test by falsification; a method of testing theory that had been developed by Karl Popper . Popper’s view was that if a theory did not fit into existing schema or assumptions, then it was to be rejected. Theorists aimed at establishing theories or findings that would be universally accepted (Hoyningen-Huene, 1993, p. 170). However, as Kuhn argues, such a method is inconclusive and non-rational. As already indicated, science investigates into puzzles that current theories do not explain. If the current theories and assumptions can not explain the puzzle, then it would not make sense to discard findings that would warranty departure from already established assumptions (Nickles, 2003, p. 144). Rather than discarding, it makes more sense to investigate further into the given findings. Kuhn’s other contribution to the debate on progress in science was his rejection of ‘incrementalism’ (Robert 1952, p.132). He believed that scientific inquiry or progress does not necessarily lead to establishment of ultimate truths. It is latently and occasionally i mplied in discourses that developments in science have led to discovery or establishment of the ultimate truth. However, looking into the array of gray areas and contradictions in science, one can not be convinced so. Ultimate truths are far from being established in many areas of scientific interest. Commensurability in science refers comparability of theories (Ladyman, 2002, p. 117). If a theory can be compared thus judged conclusively based on established assumptions, the theory is commensurable. If a theory can not compare with established theories or guiding assumptions, such a theory is considered as incommensurable. According to Kuhn, scientific paradigms are not commensurable (Robert, 1952, p. 142).Advertising Looking for essay on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Paradigm’s incommensurability is occasioned by the fact that change in paradigm is change in world view. Therefore, people in different paradigms can not compare their views because they base their theories on different world views. Secondly, often when paradigm shifts occur in science, methodology is also affected (Bird, 2004). If a study is done basing on a different methodology, there is not much ground for comparing it with another done based on some other methodology. Further, even the jargon or concepts used by different paradigms differ in a big way. The way concepts are related in one paradigm does not resemble another paradigm due to change in assumptions. Finally, Kuhn expressed that paradigm shifts happen after sometime. When a paradigm shift occurs, scientists’ training and even experience changes, which makes paradigms incomparable (Bird, 2004). From the foregoing paragraphs, it is clear that Kuhn’s ideas were in themselves seeds for a paradigm shif t. Traditionally, it was believed that science is progressive with one idea leading to another successfully until ultimate truths are established. Kuhn championed a shift in paradigm. The new paradigm challenges the claimed objectivity in sciences and obsession with comparability with established theories or knowledge. According to Kuhn, science progresses in a revolutionary way. The resistance to change due to established consensus and expectations make change or shift in paradigm very hard. Those who seek new ways or acknowledge unpopular findings that do not support established assumptions are met with insurmountable resistance. Reference List Andersen, H. (2001). On Kuhn, Belmont CA: Wadsworth. Bird, A. (2004). Thomas Kuhn. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Retrieved from file:///C:/DOCUME~1/Owner/LOCALS~1/Temp/thomas-kuhn.htm Godfrey-Smith, P. (2003). Theory and Reality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Hoyningen-Huene, P. (1993). Reconstructing Scientific Revolutions: T homas S. Kuhn’s Philosophy of Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Ladyman, J. (2002). Understanding Philosophy of Science. New York: Routledge Nickles, T. (2003). Thomas Kuhn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Robert, K. (1952). Introduction to Philosophy of Science. Oxford: Oxford University Press. This essay on Thomas Kuhn’s Scientific Revolution was written and submitted by user Madeline B. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.