Thursday, October 31, 2019

Social Construction Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Social Construction - Essay Example The chief delayed in giving the Spaniards women, thus, a fight ensued, leaving twenty Spaniards dead. The Spaniards in return burned the town, killing hundreds of Choctaw and causing ruins in the town. This made the Choctaws develop a grudge with the Europeans, and racism developed. The Indians got discriminated against because they were not whites (Brescia, 1982). Native Americans got inferior treatment and had to be educated on how to behave like whites. They faced subjection to slavery and denial of civil rights because of their skin color. They also faced marginalization and discrimination. Africans forcefully became slaves of the white Americans with no powers or rights as demonstrated in the African slave trade (Hogendorn & Johnson, 1986). During the Second World War, African Americans were stigmatized, denied all rights, and got a second hand citizen treatment. The African slaves provided labor in farming production and domestic work. The Asian American got subjected to racism and had laws discriminating them in United States. The Chinese got prohibited from entering the United States. They provided hard labor and were forced to do risky work that endangered and killed many of them. These included building the first intercontinental railway and making roads through the mountains (Kevin, 2005). Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 prohibited al l Chinese immigrants from entering United States. The poor whites of the rural got discriminated against due to their poor economic status. Examples of this sub group are the Mormons and French Canadians (Hudson, 1971). Racism is a social construct as it connects individuals of the same race and helps them bond with other races in the society. Orientalism states that American culture and literature reinforces prejudice against non western cultures and classifies them as Orientals or others. Orientalism is the study of people from eastern Asia, especially Japan

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Innovation Report on the Microwave Oven Essay Example for Free

Innovation Report on the Microwave Oven Essay The famous American inventor, Thomas Alva Edison, once said: â€Å"Anything that wont sell, I dont want to invent. Its sale is proof of utility, and utility is success. † His perception was precisely accurate even to date, as the success of any product depends on the demand for it in the market’s economy. Inventions have continuously been reconstructed in different ways stretching technology to new lengths, which has changed the way we live today. When comparing the lifestyle of people in today’s world with those in the past, it is easy to recognize the way in which technology has changed us as; we now rely on it to assist in everyday activities. One such technological device, which is currently relied upon by many is the microwave oven. It is common to have microwave ovens in many different kitchen atmospheres; such as restaurants, offices and homes. At present, it is safe to say most families, over 95% of American households, own a microwave oven. Many of which commented that this device is difficult or impossible to do without it (Remich, 2007). According to a report by Lukovitz (2009), the economic crisis had an impact upon many Americans, which led them to change the way, they ate. This change led to many people eating at home but not necessarily cooking their own food. As the microwave oven gained popularity among households, the objective of this essay is to examine the origins of the microwave ovens in addition to the impact it has on the consumers. During World War II there were numerous radar related research projects being undertaken. These investigations were carried about using magnetrons, a vacuum tube which can produce microwave radiation (Gallawa, 2009). The invention of the microwave oven was therefore classified as a by-product of another technology since this was the method in which it was created. Dr. Percy LeBaron Spencer, a famous engineer with the Raytheon Corporation, was the first creator of the microwave oven in 1946 (Gallawa, 2009). While testing the vacuum tubing, Spencer realized the chocolate bar in his pocket melted and as such, he went on to experiment with popcorn, which popped, and finally with an egg, that exploded. A design was then fashioned to contain all the heat so as to cook food. This invention was to revolutionize the world of cooking from that day forward. Upon the early years of the product, microwave ovens were usually over five feet tall, weighed over 750 pounds and was priced at approximately $5000 each (Gallawa, 2009). A picture of such microwave ovens can be seen in figure one of the appendix. These microwave ovens needed plumbing upon assemble as the magnetron tube had to be water-cooled. During those years, the oven was not very popular; however, Raytheon Corporations thought differently and carried on to invest into the product. As the years went by, the improvements made the microwave oven more reliable and lightweight. Developments of new air-cooled magnetron were also undertaken eliminating the need for a plumber (Gallawa, 2009). As the microwave oven became recognized throughout the food industry, for less wastage and cutting costs, there were also new applications for their usage. Some industries used the microwave oven for drying potato chips, roasting coffee beans and other drying applications (Gallawa, 2009). The microwave oven was therefore becoming popular among many as the usage of it became endless. As with all great technologies, there is always room for improvement within the market and this is what was happening to the microwave oven. Thus enter the era of compact microwave ovens. Two years after Raytheon Manufacturing Company acquired Amana Refrigeration, they introduced the line of compact microwave ovens. Introduced in 1967 these compact microwave ovens, called the Radarange, were a countertop model priced at $495 (SMECC, 2007). An image of these compact microwave ovens can be seen in figure two of the appendix. This microwave oven also had similar effects upon the market as it was not popular and the company was not getting the sales it deserves as yet. According to Gallawa (2009), the first time the microwave oven sales exceeded those of gas ranges is in 1975. From this point onwards it was expected that sales of the microwave ovens would continue to increase especially in the next year. At present, microwave ovens come in many different styles and sizes adapting to the needs of the consumer. For instance some persons may prefer a convection microwave oven with a feature, which saves energy while others may choose a built in microwave oven to compliment their kitchen decor. Upon the invention of any product, there have been changes and modifications for improve its reliability in addition to adapting to the needs of the consumers. When emphasizing the change and innovation upon inventions created, Joseph Schumpeter (1934) made the following thesis; ‘They have employed existing means of production differently, more appropriately, more adventurously. They have â€Å"carried out new combinations†. They are entrepreneurs’ (Lumsdaine and Binks 2007). This interpretation attempts to explain the definition of an entrepreneur and analyzes them to be anyone who can make change upon an invention. Dr. Percy LeBaron Spencer can therefore be classed as an entrepreneur along the definitions of Joseph Schumpeter. He continued by explaining these changes can be categorized into two groups; discrete and gradual changes. The innovation of the microwave oven is a discrete change as there was no previous invention like this before its introduction to be compared to in the market. All associated risks involved with this type of change were experienced in the introduction of the microwave oven. As mentioned earlier, when the first microwave ovens were introduced, they were not popular and as such sales were not appealing (Gallawa 2009). The shareholders took a risk and continued the investments into the product. These risks were high and if there the innovation of the microwave oven was to be a failure this could have incurred large losses within the company. There was also a risk involved whether consumers would change their perspective about the use of microwave ovens within their homes. According to Gallawa (2009), there were many fears and myths about the use of microwave ovens as consumers thought they could make one blind or a person may die from the radiation poisoning. These fears and myths were the sole cause of the unfavorable reaction to the microwave oven in the earlier years. As these myths were tested to be false and fears were being overcome, consumes started to see the benefits of using the microwave oven. Reusch (2008) lists some of these advantages such as saving time in preparing meals, conservation of nutrition values in foods compared to using the stovetop, and it is easy to be cleaned. Thus, consumers began to purchase the microwave oven as a necessary kitchen appliance in the home. Even thought the stovetop is still the most popular cooking device among Americans, its usage has dropped from 53% in 1985 to 33% in 2009 (Lukovitz, 2009). Having gained a large consumer base over the years, the usage of the microwave oven has had a continuous increasing rate. Many companies have recognized the growing use of the microwave oven and as such they have prepared foods that are fully prepared by them. These foods range from pre-cooked entrees to organic and natural foods. Some foods may be packaged in a single serving meal pack that is easy to transport and prepare. Most of them also have a high nutritional value that can appeal to many persons whom are concerned about their health whilst eating good tasting and smelling foods. The use of microwave ovens has come a long way throughout its history. Starting off with an unfavorable initial reaction, the microwave oven has gained its reputation and is now a common way of preparing food. This was mainly due to its time saving feature in which it can cook foods as many people are working longer hours. The reputation gained from the microwave oven has also made it difficult for persons to go back to the original way of cooking and preparing foods. Many people of today’s age would prefer to use the microwave oven over any other cooking appliance. This is one kitchen appliance, which is considered a necessity to many people around the world. In conclusion, the innovation of the microwave oven was a successful invention that changed the way in which we prepared food.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Imperialism The Elephant Among Us History Essay

Imperialism The Elephant Among Us History Essay The phrase White mans burden, coined by Rudyard Kipling, accurately represents the viewpoint which Western society has towards imperialism; as it claims that it is the duty of the white man to essentially civilize other cultures by converting them to Western mannerisms. Although the practice of imperialism has been justified under the pretense of improving the society, the reality of imperialism is a developed nation extending their power over a foreign nation for the purpose of economic gain. George Orwell writes Shooting An Elephant after his service as an Indian Imperial Police officer in Burma to highlight the negative impact that imperialism has on both the oppressed and the oppressors. While in Burma, Orwell witnesses the unjust that is imperialism as he watches the British abuse their power by taking over the wealth of the nation and also, from the lack of respect shown to the inhabitants since they are treated inhumanely and their culture is in the process of being eradicate d. By the British rejecting the Burmese culture and not respecting their practices, the Burmese were treated inhumanely because of their cultural differences, causing racial tensions to arise between the groups as they became more divided. Summary At the start of the essay, the narrator immediately makes his unhappiness in Burma known, reflecting back on football matches where he would be jeered at and taunted. However, his discontent wasnt solely the fault of the Burmese, the narrator makes it explicitly clear that he does not agree with the practice of imperialism as he sees the effect it has on the natives. Although he claims to be on the side of the natives, he also harbors a hatred towards them. Later in the day the narrator hears news about an elephant that has gone must and is rampaging the town, so he brings his pistol with him though he has no intention of actually killing the elephant, and follows after it. The natives seeing the narrator with a gun, begin to crowd behind him and follow him to where the elephant is. While the narrator is following the trail of the elephant, he spots a victim of the rampage, an indian man whom had been killed, giving into the pressure of the crowd and an excuse to justify the killing, he decides to shoot the elephant, even though the elephant has now calmed down. Despite the fact that the elephant was no longer a threat, the narrator shoots the elephant, much to the natives pleasure as they will reap the benefits of the dead elephant. The narrator is aware that the situation could have been avoided and even considers the act to be similar to murder, however even after acknowledging those facts he states that his sole purpose for killing the elephant was not out of justice for the man it had killed, but rather for his pride, so he would not appear foolish to the Burmese. Audience At the beginning of the essay, the narrator makes it clear that he is constantly ridiculed and resented by the Burmese, along with the other British officers, despite the fact that he agrees with the natives that imperialism is wrong. However, because the Burmese openly resent the British, since they are aware that they are being treated inhumanely, this only fuels the Britishs harsh treatment towards the Burmese, which creates a constant tension between the two groups. Orwell writes this essay for the general public of Britain to convey the detrimental effects that imperialism has not only on the countries brought under British rule, but also to the British. Throughout the essay the narrator states that the colonizers will lose their integrity and compromise their moral values when they are placed in a position of power of having authority over others, much like how his own were compromised. Orwell writes the British public in order to spread awareness of the harm that imperialism i s causing in the sense that the natives are being treated inhumanely as their culture is slowly disappearing due to the British demand in becoming westernized. The audience only sees one side of imperialism, which are the profits made from the country and using the fact that they are becoming more civilized to justify their actions, rather than to acknowledge the injustices of having the cultural and religious practices infringed upon, and generally being disrespected. Evaluation When the narrator decides to shoot the elephant, he justifies his actions by explaining that he feels pressured, believing that he has got to do what the natives expect of him. He wears a mask, and his face grows to fit it ( Orwell 184). Despite the fact that the narrator makes it explicitly clear that he does not want to shoot the elephant, especially since it was calm, he feels pressured by the crowd to do what is expected of a British officer, which would be to uphold the law since the elephant has killed someone. Shooting the elephant demonstrates how imperialism has an effect on both the oppressors and the oppressed. The British police officers act corrupt in order to keep up with the appearance that they are justified to have power over the natives, essentially causing him to wear a mask, (Orwell 181). The narrator comes to term that the British government is an unbreakable tyranny (Orwell 181) .On one side he is regarded as a wise ruler, however, he knows that his actions are wrong, though he must behave in such a way to disguise this. Furthermore, when the narrator decides to go against his moral integrity, he automatically feels guilty, It seemed dreadful to see the great beast lying there, powerless to move and yet powerless to die, (186). The narrator is aware that he is now forced to live with his actions of going against his moral ideals, however, he sees just how immense of a benefit the dead elephant was worth to the natives. Also, the elephants unwillingness to die is parallel of British colonialism, in the sense that the British were not willing to relinquish their power over the colonies they had ruled. The narrator lost his control by shooting the elephant similarly to the British losing its control on the colonies. Additionally, by drawing a parallel between the elephant and Britain, Orwell successfully establishes the true nature of imperialism. For example, through shooting the elephant, Orwell highlights the shift in power in the sense th at after the elephant is shot, the Burmese, had stripped his body almost to the bones by afternoon, meaning that the Burmese took charge and asserted their power over the British, and reaped the benefits of the destruction of imperialism (Orwell 186). The older officers believed that the narrator was right in shooting the elephant, while the younger officers disagreed stating that, It was a damn shame to shoot an elephant for killing a coolie because an elephant was worth more than any damn Coringhee coolie, emphasizing the fact that the older officers had witnessed the atrocious effect that imperialism had and believed that it was necessary to eradicate it, while the younger officers were not even aware that what they were enforcing was wrong. The narrator was justified in shooting the elephant, due to the fact that imperialism was damaging to both the oppressed and the oppressors, however, he did not shoot the elephant for the right reasons, since he did not want to appear as fool ish. Annotated Bibliography George Orwell demonstrates the negative impact that imperialism has on both the oppressed and the oppressors in his essay Shooting An Elephant, which was based on his experience as an Indian Imperial Police Officer. Orwell notes details as to how the Burmese were treated as a result of being colonized by the British, and also how the British were affected as well. The authors goal is to expose the true nature of imperialism and the detrimental effects that is had on the parties involved. Therefore, this essay is targeted towards the British public due to the fact that they were ignorant of the true nature of imperialism and had the ability to advocate against it once they understood the repercussions.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Love in The Yellow Wallpaper, Hlls Like White Elephants, and A Dolls H

Love in The Yellow Wallpaper, Hlls Like White Elephants, and A Doll's House True love is the love that everyone fantasizes about. It is the love that is unconditional and everlasting. Love is very hard to define since everybody's concept of love is different. However, in order to achieve a good relationship, people must have a well balanced power structure in their relationship, and good understanding and communication between them. In the stories, "The Yellow Wallpaper,'; "Hills Like White Elephants,'; and "A Doll's House,'; one could see the lopsided relationship between the males and females. In these stories the males predominates the females, and the characters seem to lack understanding, and communication toward another, which causes problems in their relationships.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The communication going on between the man and girl in the story, "Hills Like White Elephants,'; are not an honest one. The man seems to lead the conversation where as the girl is quiet. He brings up the subject of 'operation' which suggested abortion, but never mentions the word 'abortion' in the story to understate it. He tries to convince the girl to get the operation, but the girl seems bothered by this subject. However, he does not stop. Their relationship seems to be fine when the baby has not came in between them. We could see this where the guy says, "We'll be fine afterward. Just like we were before.'; The girl wants the relationship to become as before, but is in a huge dilemma whether to give birth to the baby or not. The man does not want the baby and has the choice of abortion in mind, not thinking of the other problems that would occur through operation such as the girl's health. Later on, the girl makes a melancholy remark that the hills look like w hite elephants. Probably the hills being a round shape reminded her of the baby. She walks toward the end of the station, and sees the beautiful nature. When she looks more toward the nature, one could see her small desire wanting the baby and thinks what may have been happened if she had the baby. The guy does not pay attention to that remark, because he is just concerned about making his point that he wants the operation done, not considering her side. The American guy does not come straight forward and does not mention the word abortion trying to manipulate her. We could see the man having the power over the ... ...hat she was nothing more than a doll for Torvald, she decides to leave the house. She sees no hope in Torvald, who until the end was concerned about his reputation and could not understand his wife. This could have been prevented if they ever had serious talks and understood each other. They needed to get into a relationship where nothing was covered up, and deal with the ugly unwanted sides of another by communication.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In all of these stories one could see the relationships where men were in control, and women were the followers. All of the relationships had problems and the cause was the lack of love, and communication. They could have had better relationships if they solved problems by having true and honest conversations, and try to know and understand the other person's thoughts. Those were stories of the 19th century, but there are still problems between males and females dealing with unbalanced relationships, and miscommunications or no communications. Love is a hard subject, and there would always be problems in relationships dealing with it, but if one is willing to listen to another and puts effort into reaching true love, the relationship could be a happy one.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

For-Profit Colleges

â€Å"The Booming Business of For-profit Colleges† Higher education is a very profitable field, and because of that, for-profit schools have been placed under scrutiny. In the documentary College Inc. , Michael Smith, the correspondent, investigates the promise and tremendous growth of for-profit colleges in the higher education industry. With the student's best interests in mind, many people have begun to question the integrity of these schools.However, they do not take into account the benefits that these for-profit colleges can offer to non- traditional students, giving them the opportunity to obtain a quality education, and arketable Job skills. For-profit colleges are continuously accepting the abundance of students who have realized that they need to go back to school because Jobs are scarce, and education is needed. Advertising plays a huge part in the large number of students enrolled in for-profit colleges.Successful colleges typically spend twenty to twenty five perc ent of their total revenue on advertising. This marketing encourages students to take the next step and enroll themselves in a college that they may not be academically or financially ready for. Because College Inc. presents he audience with interviews from multiple sources including former students, school executives, government officials, and enrollment advisors, it effectively portrays the many different perspectives of the industry, and the tension within it.Michael Clifford, a former musician who never went to college, purchases struggling traditional colleges, and turns them into for-profit companies. He believes that it takes the three M's to turn a college around: Money, management, and marketing. To fund these turnaround projects, Clifford presents to his investors the benefits of putting money into fixing these colleges. From an investor's point of view, for-profit colleges can be a huge source of income. Jeffery Silber, a senior analyst at BMO Capital Markets, says  "From a business perspective, it's a great story. miou're serving a market that's been traditionally underserved. And it's a very profitable business it generates a lot of free cash flow. † But from a student's perspective, it is not fair for their education to be turned into a business. Enrollment advisors play a huge role in the success of for-profit colleges. They are required to recruit a large number of students. The pressure to grow has presented questions about nrollment techniques. Some colleges have been accused of using high pressure sales tactics to get students to fill out application papers.Many of these colleges say they do not have quotas, but Tami Barker, a former enrollment advisor at Ashford University, says she was instructed to make 1 50 calls a day, and close on at least twelve students a month. â€Å"l didn't realize Just how many students we were expected to recruit. † says the former enrollment counselor. â€Å"They used to tell us, you know, â €˜Dig deep. Get to their pain. Get to what's bothering them. So, that way, you can convince hem that a college degree is going to solve all their problems. † Enrollment advisors convince students that attending college will be easy and affordable even when they are not academically, or financially capable. Dan Golden says â€Å"The concern is that they're bringing in students who can't succeed or graduate, loading them with debt. † The documentary College Inc. presents its audience witn a great deal ot students who felt that they were mislead by these enrollment advisors. The debt load of for- profit students is more than twice the amount of students at traditional schools.Anne Cobb, a former student at The University of Phoenix, says an enrollment advisor at the university helped her get a student loan even though she was swimming in bills. Sherry Haferkamp, a graduate from Argosy University-Dallas says she believed a lot of lies that were told to her, and it was no t until after the fact that she realized they were anything but the truth. When she talked to an enrollment counselor at Argosy, he said â€Å"You know, instead of applying for the master's program, go ahead and apply for the doctorate program. They've got two spots available, so you better apply right now.After obtaining her degree, and accumulating over 100,000 dollars in federal student loans, Sherry finds out that her degree is not even accredited by the American Psychological Association. She feels that she is at a dead end, and filed a lawsuit claiming that she was defrauded. The documentary College Inc. , was effective in its purpose of showing the importance of for-profit schools. A large number of students who would never have been accepted into a traditional college, have now been given the opportunity to obtain a degree. Investors who have put money into these failing colleges have profited a great deal.Michael Clifford turned traditional colleges that were in a downward spiral, and close to shutting down into successful for-profit schools. Even though the documentary shows a few students who are unhappy with their experiences, it seems that more people have benefited from these colleges than those who have not.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Lesson Before Dying Theme essays

Lesson Before Dying Theme essays Throughout many novels authors use themes to reveal the plot. Relationships, love, and loyalty are a few themes that Ernest J. Gaines used in A Lesson Before Dying. However, the most apparent theme is racism. Jefferson is sentenced to death by a white judge and jury for a crime that he did not commit. The judge did not contemplate his decision on Jeffersons fate for long. He was quick to make a decision that would affect the lives of many in Jeffersons community. Grant Wiggens was a very well educated black male who was treated unfairly in many situations because of his skin color. Grant waited on several occasions to talk to Henri Pichot. Though Pichot asked that Grant come to his house, Pichot still made him wait hours just so that he could continue talking to his white friends. When Grant went to the store to buy a radio for Jefferson he was not attended to. When he was finally helped by the sales clerk, he was quickly denied service when a white customer entered the store. Another white woman came into the store...The clerk went to see what the white woman wanted. The other woman was not buying anything; she only wanted to talk. So they stood there about ten minutes before the clerk came back to wait on me[Jefferson] (176). Though whites and blacks lived in the same town, the whites possessed the schools, churches, and movie theaters in the upskirts of town. The blacks were separated by being forced the use the services in the b ack of town. The whites had bathrooms in easily accessible places; while the blacks used the restrooms in the basement. Racism still exists today, in society. However, It is not in the extreme as it was in the early 1900s. By reading this novel and learning about the issues that the colored faced, we can help modify and change the future. ...