Tuesday, December 31, 2019

A Project Management Plan For The Orion Shield Project

Executive Summary A good project management plan takes some preparation it includes the basic concepts of proper planning, organization and great project manager management skills. It includes a variety of resources that come together to achieve a certain goal. As project manager it is imperative that he or she deliver the necessary results within the time limitation as well as within the allotted budget. Effective project managers allocate certain aspects of the project to their team in order to ensure the project’s success. The Orion Shield Project is a story of a recently chosen project manager, Gary Allison, who worked for the Scientific Engineering Corporation (SEC) whose lack of experience, skills, actions and unethical decisions resulted in a practically failing project for the NASA. Gary being a project engineer was more focused on one aspect of the project and not the other thus unable to find the right balance between the two. This paper will identify and analyze the challenges of an unorganized project as well as discuss recommendations to enhance the performance of the project manager. Introduction In order to be an effective project manager certain things have to be accomplished. According to Schwalbe ( 2015), â€Å"Project managers must not only strive to meet specific scope, time, cost, and quality requirements of projects, they must also facilitate the entire process to meet the needs and expectations of the people involved in or affected by projectShow MoreRelatedProject Management Case1601 Words   |  7 PagesPhase I of the Orion Shield Project. Henry Larsen, the Director of Engineering insisted on having an engineer as the Program Manager. This led to Gary Allison taking the role of Project Manager without any prior experience. Gary had previously earned the reputation of a respected and talented employee with over 14 years of experience as Project Engineer. Henry Larson wanted an inexperienced Project Manager who could be easily manipulated and who would accept his unethical management standards. ThisRead MoreEssay on The Orion Shield Project Analysis1736 Words    |  7 PagesThe Orion Shield Project: Doomed from the Get-Go Executive Summary â€Å"Projects account for about one fourth of the U.S. and the world’s gross domestic product† (Schwalbe 2012). With that said, there are many challenges and issues that hinder the ultimate success or completion of a project. So is evident in the case of the Orion Shield Project, whose execution faced issues of technical, ethical, legal, contractual and interpersonal natures. Taking on a role that assumes responsibilities in starkRead MoreOrion Shield Project Essay1620 Words   |  7 PagesAssignment Orion Shield Project Executive Summary: Scientific Engineering Corporation (SEC) had decided to compete for Phase I of the Orion Shield Project. The Director of Engineering Henry Larsen, wanted to employ an engineer to the role of project manage instead of an experienced project manager. Enter Gary Allison an experiences Project Engineer with absolutely no formal Project management experience. Gary was known around the organization as a knowledgeable with numerous years of Project EngineerRead MoreThe Orion Shield Case Analysis Essay1629 Words   |  7 PagesThe Orion Shield Project Case Study Executive Summary Project management is the science of planning, organizing, executing, and managing the resources needed to achieve a specific goal. Effective project managers (PM) strategically facilitate the entire project management process to ensure the project’s success. To do this the PM must adequately meet the specific requirements (i.e., time, scope, quality, and cost) set forth by the project and its stakeholders. It is theorized that PM must possessRead MoreOrion Shield Project Case Essay3268 Words   |  14 PagesThe Orion Shield Project Case Executive Summary In this paper, The Orion Shield Project is critically analyzed to determine how effective the project manager, Mr. Gary Allison, is in operating as leader. Specifically, the paper focuses on what technical, ethical, legal, contractual, and other managerial issues plague the success of The Orion Shield Project. The paper attempts to analyze these issues by first introducing the reader to background about the project, andRead MoreEssay on Orion Shield Project5524 Words   |  23 PagesANALYSIS OF THE ORION SHIELD PROJECT Case Study Analysis of the Orion Shield Project Mark H. Komori University of Maryland University College M. Komori- Orion Shield Project 2 Table of Contents Executive Summary †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 3 Section One: Technical Issues †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 3 1.0 Project Integration Management †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 3 2.0 Project Scope Management †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦... 4 3.0 Project Time Management †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Read MoreProject Management Project Manager For The Orion Project1072 Words   |  5 PagesThere are five processes associated with project management and they are project initiation, project planning, project execution, project monitoring, and project closure. Gary Allison was selected by Henry Larsen a s the project manager for the Orion Project. This was Gary’s first time serving as a project manager. Gary had no prior experience as a project manager. Because of Gary’s inexperience as a project manager he failed in most of the project processes. During the planning phase Gary failedRead MoreProject Mismanagement1909 Words   |  8 PagesT. GLENN/AMBA 640/WEEK 2 Project Mismanagement How miscommunication and lack of ethics almost destroyed a project Timothy Glenn 7/17/2011 T. Glenn/AMBA 640/Week 2 Executive Summary Hiring Gary Allison as the Project Manager for the Orion Shield Project was a big mistake. One must question both the judgment and ethics of Henry Larson in hiring an inexperienced person to lead such an extensive project. Many erroneous decisions were made by Gary as he erroneously heeded the poor and unethicalRead MoreEssay on Orion Shield Project2240 Words   |  9 PagesExecutive Summary The Orion Shield scenario presented a novice project manager’s actions, inactions and subsequent results during a project to produce materials for an orbiter’s launch booster rocket.    While the contracted company eventually succeeded in producing a product, the project was plagued with numerous challenges that could have resulted in failure and did indeed result in the demotion of the project manager.    There were business strategy, structural, contractual, ethical, and communicationRead MoreProject Mgmt296381 Words   |  1186 Pages Cross Reference of Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) Concepts to Text Topics Chapter 1 Modern Project Management Chapter 8 Scheduling resources and cost 1.2 Project defined 1.3 Project management defined 1.4 Projects and programs (.2) 2.1 The project life cycle (.2.3) App. G.1 The project manager App. G.7 Political and social environments F.1 Integration of project management processes [3.1] 6.5.2 Setting a schedule baseline [8.1.4] Setting a resource schedule Resource

Sunday, December 22, 2019

The Problem Of Teenage Obesity Essay - 1177 Words

Teenage obesity is rising significantly not only in the New Zealand but all throughout the world. It is growing epidemic and it’s a terrible thing. Watching a teenager wobble around all day out of breath and struggling to manage the stairs at school something no one should ever witness but with 18%⠁ ´ of teenagers obese it’s becoming a more common site everyday. Obesity is a risk factor for several diseases and it can lead to more serious problem in the end and can be fatal that can cause even death. How have obesity numbers quadrupled in adolescents in the past 30 years? ¹ New Zealand s weight problem is gobbling up more than 4 per cent of what we spend on health care. $624 million, was estimated to have been spent on health care for the obese and overweight in 2006. The sum includes both private and government spending. With this much money being spent on the issue and obesity numbers still rising we must be doing something wrong. What is the extent of this worldwide epidemic? Obesity is steadily and inexorably becoming the greatest health problem in the developed world. It has recently been estimated that 237,600,000 teenagers ² are overfed and overweight, a number that rivals the number who are underfed and underweight. Overweight becomes the disease of obesity when excess fat has accumulated to the extent that it may adversely affect health. This point is most commonly deï ¬ ned by the body mass index (BMI). Although a BMI 25 can be associated with a reduced life expectancyShow MoreRelatedThe Growth Of Teenage Obesity Essay1309 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction The growth in teenage obesity in the course of recent decades, together with the related health issues and expenses, is growing serious concern among parents and health care professionals. This research paper begins by studying research on energy intake, energy expenditure, and â€Å"energy balance,† observing that teenagers who consume extra â€Å"empty calories† and spend fewer calories by performing physical activity are more liable to be obese than other teenagers. Most importantly changesRead MoreEssay on Teenage Drivers are an Accident Waiting to Happen578 Words   |  3 Pages Teenage drivers are an accident waiting to happen. They display only characteristics of being immature, having carelessness, and displaying irresponsibility. Teenage car accidents are the leading cause of death among all teens. This fact is surprising since you always hear about teen drug overdoses and teen suicides, but never teenage driving fatalities. A proposal to raise the use legal age of driving to 21 will save many lives, save money, and benefit the community as a whole. Many people don’tRead MoreThe Issue Of Teenage Obesity1231 Words   |  5 PagesTeenage obesity is one if the sternest topics viewed globally. The epidemic has severe outcomes and can sometimes be fatal. An obese child is any child or teen that is severely overweight and has a body mass index, or BMI, that is equal to or greater than the 85th percentile which equates to about 10 percentage points higher than the recommended body weight for their height and body type. Doctors claim that today about 1 in 3 kids are overweight or obese. A number of studies have shown how beingRead MoreTo Eat or Not to Eat: a Comparison of Anorexia and Obesity Essays1249 Words   |  5 Pagesthe primary cause of death for anorexics. Obesity is a condition in which the person’s natural energy reserve is drastically increased to the point that it creates a risk factor (when the body mass index is over 25% body fat in men and over 35% body fat in women) and leaves the body pervious to other health conditions. Complications comprise of cardiovascular problems such as congestive heart failure and pulmonary embolism, as well as respiratory problems like asthma and hypoventilation. Other complicationsRead MoreEffects of Soda On The Body Essay1436 Words   |  6 PagesUnfortunately for the United States, it’s one of the first countries to start drinking soft drinks. Soda can also be termed as soft drink, coke or fizzy drink and is consumed by all ages worldwide. (Khara) Soft drinks can cause tooth decay, dehydration, obesity and more, and also contain tons of preservatives and artificial sweeteners. It isn’t just parents giving their children soda, it’s also the school districts providing m ore unhealthy choices and minimal nutritional items, such as milk or water, andRead MoreChildhood Obesity: A Growing Problem795 Words   |  3 PagesChildhood obesity is a growing problem that needs to be resolved. Many people may say it is the Child’s fault, he is weak willed. This is just a common misconception; there are hundreds of different reasons for childhood obesity. I will just be scratching the surface of this paper. By the same token childhood obesity is a growing problem that needs to be resolved. We can achieve this by understanding some common misconceptions, understanding health problems, and understanding fitness. ThereforeRead MoreA Research Study On Childhood Obesity850 Words   |  4 Pagesis obesity. This draft outlines the symptoms, diagnosis, cure, and prevention for this very curable disease. Pueblo Colorado has two public health issues. First is childhood obesity, and second is teenage pregnancy. Both problems have been the main focus on the city for a number of years; however, the obesity problem seems to be the greater of the two. Although this community has been highlighted for having the highest childhood obesity rate amongst all of Colorado, I believe the problem originatesRead MoreObesity Is The Most Common Pediatric Chronic Disease Essay1740 Words   |  7 PagesAbout one-third of children and adolescents ages 6 to 19 are considered to be overweight or obese(NIH). Obesity has become the most common pediatric chronic disease in todays time.(TRINITY). An approach to this would be to make a dietary plan to help the youth overcome this sickness .Many illness that occurs in ob ese teenagers are a result of their eating habits, minimal excise time, and continual depression. Over eating can be a result of the teenagers not having enough activities to engage inRead MoreObesity Is A Common Problem1222 Words   |  5 PagesThroughout the world, obesity is a common problem. This is especially true for the United States. About 22 million children were obese at the age of five in 2007 (Stern and Kazaks 1), and this trend keeps growing every year. Effects of obesity control quality of life from something as simple as ease of mobility to as serious as mental health issues regarding low self-esteem. The negative impact of obesity influences daily life from breaking down traditional family meals, the amount of physical activityRead MoreToday’s Teenage Nutrition Essay599 Words   |  3 PagesToday’s Teenage Nutrition Getting something to eat from a convenience store or a fast food restaurant is an everyday thing for most teenagers. For breakfast it’s a sugar covered donut, for lunch: a bacon cheeseburger from a fast food restaurant near the school, and for dinner: mom’s homemade 4 cheese casserole! A typical day for an unhealthy teen! Today’s teens are not getting enough nutrients; most teens rather not eat then have fruit or vegetables. Which is a very bad idea because it will have

Saturday, December 14, 2019

How Montessori Environmet Differs Than Traditional Setup Free Essays

Montessori environment differs from traditional education in many ways. Only a few of them are discussed below: In a Montessori environment the support is given to the natural development of the human being. The emphasis is on cognitive (the emergence of the ability to think and understand) and social development. We will write a custom essay sample on How Montessori Environmet Differs Than Traditional Setup or any similar topic only for you Order Now Whereas in a traditional classroom, prescribed or arranged blocks of knowledge are transmitted into the child. The areas to focus on are rote (memorization technique based on repetition) knowledge. It is as if the information is poured into the brain of a child without much understanding of the process. In Montessori setup the child is not just there in the classroom to listen and receive whatever the teacher is â€Å"lecturing† him about (without even understanding a word). But he is there to think and ponder upon the work that is presented to him. Why and how the child arrives at what he knows is just as important as what he knows. In a Montessori classroom, the independent activity is 80 % of the work, and the teacher directed activity accounts for the remaining 20 %. The reverse is true for the traditional setup. When the child is in a Montessori class, he has shown the activity once (if needed it can be presented again) and then it is up to him to choose from variety of activities that he was shown earlier. The child is allowed to choose his work, take it to his work space and repeat it as much as he wants. This whole process calls for independence. In a traditional classroom, the teacher is the one who decides what the child has to learn, also the pace of the learning process as well as how the learning will take place. The teacher is in control of the whole scenario so most of the activity takes place through her. Self corrected materials are used in a Montessori environment. A child relies on impersonal judgement that comes from his senses. Each material is prepared with control of error. Whereas an external force, means a teacher, is the one who corrects in a traditional way of learning. By using the self corrected materials the child acquires independence. If he makes a mistake, he can correct himself without any help from an adult. In a traditional classroom, the child always depends on the teacher to correct his mistakes nd to tell him if he has done his work correctly or not. This way the child looks for appraisal and always asks for teacher’s approval. The child does not do his work for his own inner satisfaction but he is always looking for outward reward or punishment. The Montessori way of learning puts emphasis on (self) discipline and freedom (within bounds). On the other hand, t he point of view in a traditional setting is that children are inherently disorderly and that their willfulness and impulses must b inhibited by an external discipline. Montessori educators believe that children cannot develop a sense of inner discipline if all of the control comes from the outside. In a Montessori classroom, the child is free to choose his work (freedom of choice) but at the same time, he can only choose out of those activities that are already presented to him (freedom within bounds). He is free to do any work he wants or wishes to do but he has to follow an order in which the work was presented to him by the directress. In a Montessori environment the teacher’s role is that of a facilitator and guide while the role of the child is an active one. In a traditional classroom, the teacher plays a very dominant role in the classroom while the child is passive. The teacher, in a Montessori classroom, is mostly in the background. She just steps in when she feels that there is a need. She does not teach, in fact she directs and makes learning smooth and enjoyable, as compared to the traditional setup where the teacher mostly talks and the child just listens. Mix age group is one of the most important aspects of a Montessori environment. Same age group is the norm of a traditional education. Mix age group in the Montessori classroom helps the teacher as well as the students. The elder children act as role models, direct the younger ones, and feel the sense of responsibility whereas the younger children look at the older ones with fascination. This sort of collaboration can be a helping hand for the teacher. The environment, in a Montessori classroom, is tailored according to the child. On the other hand, in a traditional classroom, the child has to adapt according to the environment. One of the main purposes of the Montessori education is to make the child independent and this can only be achieved if we cater to the needs of the child. Montessori classroom belongs to the child and that’s why the whole setup is child sized. The child in the Montessori environment is the center of everything. Montessori environment emphasizes that learning should be done through all five senses. Whereas, in a traditional setup, learning takes place mostly through listening, reading and watching. In a Montessori classroom hands on activities are used so that the child can use his senses to absorb the information (this way the information that is absorbed is long lasting) as compared to the traditional set up where the child sits passively, and listens to the teacher. How to cite How Montessori Environmet Differs Than Traditional Setup, Essay examples

Friday, December 6, 2019

Privacy and Security Issues Associated with Big Data

Question: Discuss about thePrivacy and Security Issues Associated with Big Data. Answer: Introduction Big Data refers to massive amounts and volumes of data sets that are analyzed with the help of automated tools in order to retrieve important information out of the same such as patterns, reports, statistics and likewise. The data that is involved with Big Data may be structured, semi-structured or unstructured and may comprise of information of varied types such as public, sensitive, confidential, private and many others. Due to the presence of such huge volumes of data, there are a number of security and privacy issues that have been seen in association with the Big Data. The document covers these issues along with their description. Five Vs of Big Data There are five important properties that are associated with the data that is comprised in the Big Data. Volume Volume refers to the amount of data that is incorporated in the repositories with every passing second. The present era is the era of information and the information that is associated with one particular organization is massive. There are millions and billions of terabytes or zettabytes of data that is accessed and included on a daily basis. Velocity It refers to the speed at which the data moves around from one entity to the other in case of Big Data. The velocity at which the data moves around is just few milliseconds and it is essential to keep track of the movement of every data bit at all times. Variety The data that is included and amalgamated for one organization is not of one particular data or format type. The data has a great degree of variety associated with it in terms of the structure and the format. It may be completely structured or totally unstructured and thus varies from one data set to the other. Veracity The veracity of the data is its quality or accuracy that is associated with it. There is the presence of huge volumes of data and the quality of the data is not consistent all throughout. The data varies from one data set to the other and is therefore required to have a standard quality measure all throughout. Value The value of data of of utmost importance since all of the data that is collected is not of use. There are data bits and sets that must be discarded as they do not add any value to the organization. Privacy and Security Issues Data Breaches and Data Leakages These are two of the most common issues that are encountered in case of the Big Data. Due to the presence of huge variety of data and such large volumes of data, it becomes easier for the attackers to get access to one or the other data set through unauthorized manners. Also, the data moves from one location to the other at almost on a non-stop basis. It may often lead to the leakage of the data at one node in the network or the other. These issues adversely impact the security and privacy of the data as the intent of the attackers is always malicious and the nature of the attack is always deliberate. It may take a toll on the privacy, confidentiality and integrity of the data. There are a number of cases of security breaches that have affected the organization and the victim from moderate to extremely severe impacts (Csa, 2012). Lack of Required Security Big Data is a term and a set of methods that is still a newer concept for many. There are organizations that are not aware about the concept and the practices that are followed in the same. It is because of this reason that the required security architecture is missing from the organizations with respect to the Big Data and the same leads to a number of security loopholes. The features such as encryption, advanced authentication, dedicated risk management and likewise are still missing from the security infrastructure of the organizations (Moura Serrao, 2016). Gap in the Skills In continuation with the previous security concern, there is also a problem of the inadequate skills that are required among the resources for the maintenance and the management of the security as far as the Big Data is concerned. The resources still have areas in Big Data that they have not had access to before and are still unexplored for them which results in some of the severe problems associated with the security and the privacy of the data (Schmitt, 2016). Data Storage The data that is present and associated with Big Data is huge in volume. It is because of this reason that the data is stored on a number of locations and places rather than at one single data repository. There are scenarios in which the required security measures are not implemented across all the storage locations which create a security loophole and allow the attackers to enter the storage system and violate the privacy of the data (Thayananthan Albeshri, 2015). Data Transfer and Data Loss Data is constantly moved from one place or location to the other as pointed out earlier. During the transfer of the data, there are often the integrity attacks that are executed by the attackers. As a result of these attacks, the data is either modified from its original form or gets completely lost. For instance, message alteration is an attack that is often executed on the Big Data to modify the information in an unauthorized manner and it takes place during the data transfer. The data is either re-routed or altered so that it loses its original structure (Ahmed, 2016). Data Sources There are often scenarios wherein the data sources that are involved with the Big Data are faulty and do not follow the security norms as required by the nature of data that is acquired from a particular source. For instance, there may be malicious codes such as viruses, worms or Trojan horses present along with the data that get acquired along with the data. These malicious codes may then spread to the other parts of the repository and may infect the other data bits as well (Toshniwal, 2015). Availability Attacks These are a common form of attacks that are executed in case of Big Data and affect the availability of the information which in turn takes a toll on the security and privacy of the data. There is a number of availability attacks that are executed out of which Denial of Service (DoS) attacks are the most common. The attackers introduce huge volume of unnecessary traffic in the network that hampers the availability of the network and makes the service completely inaccessible (Tsai, 2016). Knowledge Contribution The research helped in understanding of the concept of the Big Data and the essential properties that are associated with the same. It also helped in the understanding of the privacy and security issues that are associated with the concept and are often overlooked or not paid due attention. The issues such as those related to the data sources or the data storage were something that were not thought of before and the research allowed gaining the information about them along with the meaning, execution and description of each. Issues not Addressed There is another important issue of insider threats that has not been covered in the list of the privacy and security issues that are discussed. The issue is of significant importance since there are a number of threats and attacks that are executed with the medium as employees of an organization. These employees include the current as well as ex employees and they are completely aware about the security policies and parameters that are associated with a particular organization. They give shape to an attack in the Big Data by violating the security and risk management policy or allow an intruder to have access to the information by violating the identity and access management norms. This issue exposes the important and private information to the attackers and is therefore extremely sever in nature. Impact of Security and Privacy Issues of Big Data The impact of the issues that have been listed above can be low, medium, high or severe and the same would depend upon the nature and type of the data that is impacted. For instance, if the attacker succeeds in acquiring the information that is private, sensitive and confidential in nature such as the one that is associated with healthcare or financial institutions, then the impact would be extremely severe. It may result in legal punishments and policies as well. However, if the data or information that is affected is public in nature then the impact would be low or moderate (Goodendorf, 2016). Lessons Learned There are a number of lessons and important information that are acquired through the medium of research on the topic Privacy and Security Issues associated with Big Data. The primary lesson that is acquired is the concept and the properties that are associated with Big Data. The second lesson that has been learnt revolves around the number of issues and attacks that the information and the data related with big data is exposed to. These issues include the ones related with the data storage, data breaches, data loss, data sources and many others. Another important lesson that is acquired includes the importance of the maintenance of security parameters within an environment in order to protect the privacy and confidentiality of the data. Conclusion Big Data comprises of huge volumes, variety and value of data and it is because of this reason that there are a number of privacy and security issues that are associated with the same. These issues can be controlled and prevented with the help of a number of countermeasures such as implementation of advanced identity and access management. Physical security along with the basic security such as use of anti-malware and firewalls can also be of great assistance in the maintenance of security. Cryptography and the application of encryption are the two methods that can be extremely useful in the protection of the privacy and security of the information. Encrypted information will allow the maintenance of security even when the attacker would be able to get hold of the same. References Ahmed, E. (2016). A Survey of Big Data Cloud Computing Security. Retrieved 22 September 2016, from https://ijcsse.org/published/volume3/issue1/p3-V3I1.pdf Csa,. (2012). Top Ten Big Data Security and Privacy Challenges. Retrieved 22 September 2016, from https://www.isaca.org/Groups/Professional-English/big-data/GroupDocuments/Big_Data_Top_Ten_v1.pdf Goodendorf, L. (2016). Managing big data privacy concerns: Tactics for proactive enterprises. SearchSecurity. Retrieved 22 September 2016, from https://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/feature/Managing-big-data-privacy-concerns-Tactics-for-proactive-enterprises Moura, J. Serrao, C. (2016). Security and Privacy Issues of Big Data. Retrieved 22 September 2016, from https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1601/1601.06206.pdf Schmitt, C. (2016). Security and Privacy in the Era of Big Data. Retrieved 22 September 2016, from https://www.renci.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/0213WhitePaper-SMW.pdf Thayananthan, V. Albeshri, A. (2015). Big Data Security Issues Based on Quantum Cryptography and Privacy with Authentication for Mobile Data Center. Procedia Computer Science, 50, 149-156. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2015.04.077 Toshniwal, R. (2015). Big Data Security Issues and Challenges. Retrieved 22 September 2016, from https://www.ijirae.com/volumes/Vol2/iss2/03.FBCS10080.pdf Tsai, C. (2016). Big data analytics: a survey. Retrieved 22 September 2016, from https://journalofbigdata.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s40537-015-0030-3